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Proto-Coastal was an ancient Indo-European language, parental to Old Coastal language, spoken on Southwestern areas of the family.

PhonologyEdit

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid e eː ə əː o oː
Low a aː

DiphthongsEdit

Front Central Back
-I ei eːi ai aːi oi oːi
-U eu eːu au aːu ou oːu

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial

Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
(Palato-
alveolar)
Retroflex Alveolo-Palatal Palatal Palata-
lized velar
Velar Labia-
lized velar
Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Plosive p b t d c ɟ k g kʷ gʷ
Ejective plosive
Implosive
Affricate
Ejective affricate
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç ʝ x ɣ xʷ ɣʷ
Lateral fricative
Nasal m n (ɲ) (ŋ)
Trill r
Tap or flap
Lateral flap
Approximant l j w

Sound changes from Proto-Indo-EuropeanEdit

Early Proto-CoastalEdit

Proto-Indo-European Proto-Coastal
Collapse of dental clusters dd dt dʰt tt → ðd θt θt θt *h₁ed-tós ('eaten') *eθtós ('food')
Bartholomae's law DʰT DʰD → DDʰ *bʰeudʰ-tós ('awoken') *bʰeuddʰós ('awoken')
'Thorn' clusters TK DGʰ DʰG DʰGʰ → K Gʰ G Gʰ *tkei- ('to rule') *kéitōr ('ruler')
Satemization ḱ ǵ ǵʰ → t͡ʃ d͡ʒ d͡ʒʰ *ḱwṓn ('dog') *t͡ʃunós (← Gen.)
Deaspiration bʰ dʰ d͡ʒʰ gʰ → b d d͡ʒ g *gʰólh₂d-os ('hail') *gólados
RUKI law s → ʃ [klriīuūwi̯]_ *mūs ('mouse') *mūʃ
Word-initial /w/ + syllabic resonants wR̩ → uR *wĺ̩kʷ-os('wolf') *úlkʷos
Word-initial /w/ + /r l m n/ w → Ø *wrónk-eh₂ ('hand') *rónkā
/r l m n/ + laryngeals

RH → əRe əRa əRo (accented)

RH → Reː Raː Roː (unaccented)

*pl̩h₁-nós ('full') *plēnós
Laryngeals + /r l m n/ HR → aR eR oR *h₂ŕ̩tḱos ('bear') *árt͡ʃos
Syllabic resonants

r̩ l̩ m̩ n̩ → ər əl əm ən (short)

r̩r l̩l m̩m n̩n → əːr əːl əːm əːn (long)

*wódr̩ ('water') *wódər
Simplification of Ts clusters with compensatory lengthening

V(R)ts → Vː(R)s

V(R)ds → Vː(R)s

*kalio-teh₂t-s ('beauty')

*pṓds ('foot')

*kaljotās

*pṓs

Cowgill's law o ō → u ū resonant_bilabial / bilabial_resonant *nókʷts ('night') *núkʷs
Assimilation /e/ before /r l/ + /a/ eLa → aLa *ḱerh₂weh₂ ('cow') *t͡ʃarawā
Plosive's fricatization after /s ʃ/

sp → sɸ
st → sθ
sk → sx
skʷ → sxʷ

sb → zβ
sd → zð
sg → zɣ
sgʷ → zɣʷ

*spóh₂ineh₂ ('foam')
*steh₂- ('to stay')
*skólis ('whelp')
*skʷéh₂-m-eh₂ ('scale')

*sbʰóngos ('fungus')
*trósdos ('thrush')
*mosgʰos ('brain')
?

*sɸṓinā
*sθajṓ ('I stay')
*sxóliʃ
*sxʷā́mā

*zβúngos
*trózðos
*mózɣos
?

Word-finally merging of nasals -m → -n *gʷiéh₃wiom ('animal') *gʷjḗujon
Assimilations of nasals before specific consonants n → m _bilabials / m → n _dentals, alveolars, velars *ténpos ('wide')
*h₂ém-tl-om ('container, vessel')
*témpos
*ántlon
Intrusive prothesis before glides after more than one consonant CCj- → CCij- / CCw- → CCuw- *bʰr̩sdʰiós ('of beard') *bərzðijós
Intervocalic voicing of /s/ s → z V_V *ḱásos ('hare') *t͡ʃázos
Consonantal assimilations by voicing BP → PP / PB → BB *h₂eǵtós ('act') *at͡ʃtós
Intervocalic assimilation of /s/ + /r l/ clusters -sr- → -rr- *úsros ('aurochs') *úrros
Intervocalic alveolarization of dental fricatives before /r l/ -θr- -ðr- → -sr- -zr-
Prothesis within word-initially cluster /s/ + /r/ sr- → str- *srákʷ-t-is ('edge') *strákʷtiʃ

Late Proto-CoastalEdit

PIE / Early Proto-Coastal Late Proto-Coastal
Fricatization of affricates t͡ʃ → ʃ
d͡ʒ → ʒ
*t͡ʃunós ('dog') *ʃunós
Simplification of fricative clusters

sɸ → f
sθ → θ
sx → x
sxʷ → xʷ

zβ → v
zð → ð
zɣ → ɣ
zɣʷ → ɣʷ

*sɸṓinā
*sθajṓ ('I stay')
*sxóliʃ
*sxʷāmā

*zβúngos
*trózðos
*mózɣos
?

*fṓinā
*θajṓ ('I stay')
*xóliʃ
*xʷāmā

*vúngos
*tróðos
*móɣos
?

Intervocalic metathesis in /r l m n/ + glide clusters

-ri̯- → -i̯r-
-li̯- → -i̯l-
-mi̯- → -i̯m-
-ni̯- → -i̯n-

*kórios ('warrior')

*kóiros

Degemination PP → ʰP
BB → ʰB
*beuddos ('awoken') *beuʰdos
Alveolarization of dental fricatives before alveolar plosives ðd θt → zd st *eθtós ('food') *estós
Lowering of high vowels before glides iw īw uw ūw → ew ēw ow ōw
ij īj uj ūj → ej ēj oj ōj
*bərzðijós ('of beard') *bərðejós
Shift of central vowel ə əː → a aː *wódər ('water') *wódar
Delabialization of labiovelars before non-labial consonants kʷ gʷ xʷ ɣʷ → k g x ɣ *núkʷs ('night') *núks
Palatalization of velars k kʷ g gʷ x xʷ ɣ ɣʷ → c cʷ ɟ ɟʷ ç çʷ ʝ ʝʷ *kéḱikos ('polecat') *céʃikos

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

VerbsEdit

AdjectivesEdit

NumeralsEdit

PronounsEdit